(Diptera: Calliphoridae)Overwintering adults of the cluster fly, Pollenia rudis Fab. are an annual problem in many houses. Cluster flies are slightly larger and darker than house flies, and have a coating of short golden hair on their thorax. These flies normally live outdoors where they occur on flowers and fruits. In late summer and fall, when the weather turns cool, cluster flies may congregate on sunny walls. They enter the home to overwinter through any available access. In the home, the flies hide, often in a cluster in attics and wall voids, in dark corners, cracks, under clothing in closets, beneath curtains, behind pictures and furniture etc. On warm, sunny days in the winter and spring, the flies often emerge from their hiding place and swarm on windows causing great annoyance by their buzzing and by their presence. Dead flies provide a food source for larder beetle larvae and can contribute to the presence of other nuisance insects in the house.In April cluster flies lay their eggs singly in cracks in the soil. During the summer, the eggs hatch and the emerging larvae (maggots) penetrate earthworms and develop as a parasite in its host. There are several generations during the summer. The adults stop egg laying in late August and September, and seek hiding places in which to overwinter. Most of the flies spend the winter outside in and on fenceposts, under stones, and in other protected places. Cluster flies are usually a greater problem in rural and suburban areas due to the large grassy areas that favor high earthworm populations.Cluster flies are not related to livestock production. They do not develop in manure or manure pits. They are not interested in food, do not develop in garbage, and are not a sign of unsanitary conditions.


Cluster Fly Control and treatments are the same as for other occasional invaders and Environmental Pest Control offers great country living services for looking for how to get rid of cluster flies.Sealing exterior gaps and cracks around windows, doors, eaves, roofs, siding and other points of access before these insects appear can help prevent some unwanted entry. Experience suggests, however, that comprehensive pest proofing is time-consuming, often impractical and usually not very effective. For large infestations with intolerable numbers of insects, spraying pyrethroid insecticides such as permethrin to the outside of buildings when the insects appear will help prevent pest entry. Homeowner insecticides do not provide satisfactory prevention 




So... What's a Tent Caterpillar?

Adult tent caterpillar aren’t caterpillars at all, they’re moths. These moths are usually tan or brownish in color with a wingspan reaching up to 1 ½ inches.The larvae – the caterpillars – are black with rows of white dots or stripes the length of its body. Short hairs cover their body, which can be up to 2 1/2 inches long.The eggs are laid as a group in a tube-like wrapping that encircles a tree branch or twig. These masses can contain up to 350 eggs and hatch in the spring. If you spot one of these egg masses, which makes a section of the branch look shiny and engorged, cut the branch below that point and dispose of the egg mass in the trash. 


Reproduction Patterns of Tent Caterpillars

Female moths deposit their eggs in the middle of summer. The eggs overwinter in a protective case that’s attached to an the branch or twig. The eggs hatch in the beginning of spring.Emerging caterpillars spin a protective silk tent in the crotch of a tree. They feed on nearby leaves in the daytime, returning to their nest when finished. They will continue in this manner for the next month or two until they are ready to pupate.During the next phase of its life cycle, the tent caterpillar will leave the nest and find an appropriate trunk or plant debris on which to spin its own cocoon. After 10 days to two weeks, the adults emerge as moths and the cycle continues. The tent caterpillar has one generation per year.

 We offer many forms of control. One popular for is B.T.K. When ingested, B.T. kills tent caterpillars, preventing further damage to your trees. The caterpillar eats the B.T.K. which is spread in a droplet wet  form on leaves. Once ingested, it works as a gut rot poison that makes the caterpillar stop feeding. Once the caterpillar stops feeding, it dies within days, succumbing to malnutrition.B.T.K. can be used on more than 20 caterpillar and worm species, but it has no effect on birds, earthworms or beneficial insects. We uise B.TK. as well as contact killing solutions.




Box Elder Bugs cause concern in the autumn when they gather in considerable numbers on the warm outside walls of homes and sometimes find their way into houses looking for a suitable place to over winter. When they gain entry to buildings through cracks or other openings they remain in wall cavities and will occasionally emerge inside the home in the spring.  They will not breed indoors, so there is no danger of starting an “infestation”.They cause no structural damage whatsoever but they can  “spot” interior furnishings with their droppings. They can’t bite, they don’t eat anything on the inside of your house, including house plants, and they won’t harm you, your family or your pets.  Identification:  This bug is about 1/2 inch long and 1/3 as wide. It is black with three red lines on the thorax, a red line along each side, and a red line on each wing. The wings lie flat on the back when at rest.

Eggs are a rusty red color and are not often seen as they are deposited on boxelder trees.

 The young nymphs are red and gray. The population of bugs may number into the thousands. resemble adults but do not have fully developed wings and are not able to reproduce. The change from nymph to adult is a gradual one.

A case of mistaken identity.
Life Cycle: The adult bugs lay eggs on the host trees in the spring and the nymphs emerge in a few days. The nymphs are small and show more red than adults. These nymphs develop into adults during the summer, then mate and lay eggs which hatch into the nymphs of the second generation. In the summer Box elder bugs normally feed on the leaves, flowers, and seed pods of the boxelder tree or silver maple. The bugs cause little damage to trees. Activity of nearly fully grown nymphs is noticed in August and September when they gather in large numbers on the trunks of box elder trees. The migration of the adults begins at this time.Prevention and control:   An obvious way to avoid infestations by this pest in residential properties is to get rid of near-by female boxelder trees.  If this species is to be planted as an ornamental or shade tree, male trees should be purchased from the nursery. They are propagated by cuttings from staminate trees. Chemical control can best be obtained by spraying the nymphs on the host trees before the adults have had a chance to migrate. Power spray equipment is usually required and a professional should be hired to do the job.We are fully equipped for such a service. Summer and fall:   Once Box elder bugs have moved into the cavities of a home in the fall, there is little that can be done to eliminate them.  Control or exclusion must be done in the summer and fall.  Removing all boxelder trees in an area will prevent breeding. Caulking windows and doors, and repairing window and door screens will prevent bugs from entering a home.  In some cases it is desired or required to control by professional apply a residual insecticide to exterior walls in the fall where the bugs are congregating – this will tend to discourage them from landing. Insecticides are not very effective after the weather turns cold.Winter and spring. When the bugs decide it’s time to leave the cavities in a home, some of them may be attracted to the warm atmosphere in you living space.  They want to get outside but inadvertently end up inside. A good way to eliminate them is to  vacuum the bugs up with a long hose attachment. We also offer an indoor residue treatment option. If you squash them they may stain the walls or fabric.  



 The inner workings of a social wasp nest consist of a highly organized unit of wasps.  The queen is at the top of the chain of command.  Her role is to establish a nest in early spring.  At first, she will have to do all the work herself, which consists of nest building, food gathering, and offspring production and care.  Before winter sets in each year queens mate, then overwinter (similar to hibernation) in attics and other sheltered places until spring.  After she builds her new nest, she lays her first batch of eggs that will hatch into infertile female workers and a few males. The sterile female workers take over many of her responsibilities as they mature.  They expand the nest, care for brood and gather food.  The males mate with the queen so that she can continue to increase the size of her colony.  All members of the nest understand their role and work diligently to fulfill their task oriented positions.Late in the season, female reproductives will be produced.  Differences between these and the infertile females produced earlier are few.  The reproductives have increased levels of fats, believed to help them survive the upcoming winter.  But physiological differences do not seem to explain why these females will produce offspring while the earlier female offspring will not.  Some studies seem to indicate that the queen, through her behavior, suppresses reproductive development in subordinate offspring.  When the summer comes to an end, the queen allows reproductive females to develop.Before winter, fertile females mate with the colony males.  As winter weather moves in, these fertilized females leave the nest, looking for shelter in places like woodpiles, sheds, garages and attics, basically anywhere they can avoid freezing temperatures, wet rains and blowing winds.  They remain largely inactive relying mostly on stored energy to live through the winter.  In the spring they begin foraging and looking for a place to build a nest.The paper wasp is not very interested in human activities because they feed on other insects.  Human - wasp interactions occur mostly at water sources where wasps collect water needed to build their nests.  Swimming pools, leaky drinking fountains, ornamental ponds, birds baths, pet water bowls and many other similar water sources can be a common meeting place.  As wasps often build their nests in man-made structures, wasps can be encountered when people accidentally find a nest they did not know was there.  The presence of a potentially dangerous nest of wasps can usually be discovered by noticing them flying to and from their nest. If you discover a yellow jacket nest please call us. We are highly skilled and experienced in the removal of these angry tenants.



 The bald-faced hornet is a relative of the yellow jacket and gets its common name from its largely black color and mostly white face. This stinging insect is named a hornet because of its large size and aerial nest.


Black with a white pattern on most of the face 


Long, wasp-like 


1/2 – 5/8” (12-15mm); queen 3/4” (18-20mm) 


Found throughout canada  


Bald-faced hornets are social insects, although not true hornets. They live in colonies that may contain between 100 and 400 members at their peak. They usually appear in late summer when populations are largest. Unlike other stinging insects, bald-faced hornets do not reuse their nests season after season. 


Bald-faced hornets build paper nests at least three or more feet off of the ground, usually in trees, shrubs, on overhangs, utility poles, houses, sheds or other structures. These nests can be as large as 14 inches in diameter and more than 24 inches in length.Threats

Bald-faced hornets are aggressive and will attack anyone or anything that invades their space. This makes bald-faced hornet removal somewhat difficult. These hornets have smooth stingers, so they can sting over and over again. Bald-faced hornet stings also carry venom that makes the stings hurt, itch and swell for about 24 hours. Humans are at the same risk of allergic reactions from bald-faced hornet stings as with other insect stings.

Bald-faced Hornet Prevention

If you find a bald-faced hornet nest on your home or property, do not attempt to remove it on your own as this can aggravate the colony and cause the hornets to sting. Contact us about hornet removal to avoid the risk of bald-faced hornet stings. 




Few animals on Earth evoke the antipathy that mosquitoes do. Their itchy, irritating bites and nearly ubiquitous presence can ruin a backyard barbecue or a hike in the woods. They have an uncanny ability to sense our murderous intentions, taking flight and disappearing milliseconds before a fatal swat. And in our bedrooms, the persistent, whiny hum of their buzzing wings can wake the soundest of sleepers.

Disease Transmission

Beyond the nuisance factor, mosquitoes are carriers, or vectors, for some of humanity’s most deadly illnesses, and they are public enemy number one in the fight against global infectious disease. Mosquito-borne diseases cause millions of deaths worldwide every year with a disproportionate effect on children and the elderly in developing countries.

There are more than 3,000 species of mosquitoes, but the members of three bear primary responsibility for the spread of human diseases. Anopheles mosquitoes are the only species known to carry malaria. They also transmit filariasis (also called elephantiasis) and encephalitis. Culex mosquitoes carry encephalitis, filariasis, and the West Nile virus. And Aedes mosquitoes, of which the voracious Asian tiger is a member, carry yellow fever, dengue, and encephalitis.

Mosquitoes transmit disease in a variety of ways. In the case of malaria, parasites attach themselves to the gut of a female mosquito and enter a host as she feeds. In other cases, such as yellow fever and dengue, a virus enters the mosquito as it feeds on an infected human and is transmitted via the mosquito’s saliva to a subsequent victim.


Mosquitoes use exhaled carbon dioxide, body odors and temperature, and movement to home in on their victims. Only female mosquitoes have the mouth parts necessary for sucking blood. When biting with their proboscis, they stab two tubes into the skin: one to inject an enzyme that inhibits blood clotting; the other to suck blood into their bodies. They use the blood not for their own nourishment but as a source of protein for their eggs. For food, both males and females eat nectar and other plant sugars.

Impact on the Ecosystem

The only silver lining to that cloud of mosquitoes in your garden is that they are a reliable source of food for thousands of animals, including birds, bats, dragonflies, and frogs. In addition, humans are actually not the first choice for most mosquitoes looking for a meal. They usually prefer horses, cattle, and birds.

Population Control

All mosquitoes need water to breed, so eradication and population-control efforts usually involve removal or treatment of standing water sources. Insecticide spraying to kill adult mosquitoes is also widespread. Garlic and essential oils have been a proven deterrent. We are fully equipped and skilled to provide a barrier for your yard with either organic or chemical treatments.





  • Has seen a resurgence over the past years
  • Adults are approximately 4 to 5 mm long, size of an apple seed
  • Does not have wings; does not fly
  • Coloured reddish brown, with abdomen darker as blood is digested
  • Males exhibit a much more tapered abdomen than females
  • Reaction to bites vary from individual to individual, ranging from none to mild to severe

Habitat and Behaviour

  • Prefers dark, undisturbed areas near host
  • Hides in crevices in furniture and baseboards near beds
  • Is attracted by carbon dioxide and warmth that humans emit
  • Being mainly active at night time; not often seen in light, especially when few in number
  • A potential problem in dwellings with high turnover (e.g. hotels and motels)
  • Ability to move to different rooms in multi-unit buildings
  • Often brought in on luggage or used furniture

Bedbugs are small, nocturnal, wingless insects belonging to the insect family of Cimicidae.  They feed on humans and other warm blooded animals. They are an oval shape and are up to 4-5 mm long when fully grown. Adult bed bugs have a flattened body and their skin colour is either rust brown or a deeper red brown. Nymph bed bugs are clear or a yellowish colour and are generally 1-4mm long. Bed bugs have two antennae and six legs .Bed bugs have been known to travel over 20 feet from hiding in order to feed but will generally hide within 3-6 feet of their host.Due to the flattened body of a bed bug they can easily hide in small places such as baseboards, cracks in floors, under carpets, behind loose wallpaper, bed frames, sofas, behind picture frames and many other places which makes them very difficult to detect. They tend to stay together and large infestations will give off a sweet but unpleasant smell.


  • Undergoes gradual metamorphosis (egg, nymph, adult)
  • Nymphs are smaller versions of the adults and will go through several molts until fully grown
  • Female lays 200 to 500 eggs in her lifetime, 10 to 50 at a time, on rough surfaces
  • Eggs hatch in 6 to 17 days
  • Adults can survive over 1 year without feeding

Long since considered eradicated from major metropolitan areas in North America … bed bugs are back!

The combination of re-introduction, increased international travel and the fact that pest control professionals no longer use older pesticides (such as DDT, Chlordane and Lindane) means that bed bugs have been able to stage a resurgence and become a very serious pest in the 21st century. They have a unique ability to hide and due to their ability to spread.Bed bugs are parasitic insects that live near their hosts. Since they feed on humans (their hosts) their habitats include houses, hotels or any property that we frequent. All they require is a protected area in close proximity to a feeding source. Bed bugs bite people when they are sleeping usually on exposed skin. When looking for a meal bed bugs can move very quickly to feed and then back into hiding after their meal. Unless you know specifically how to look for bed bugs these pests can be easily overlooked.Bed bug bites can also go unnoticed, and are even often misdiagnosed, making detection that much more difficult.

How Do You Get Bed Bugs?

How Do Bed Bug Problems Start?

Bed bugs do not cling to people but they can accidentally get caught up in our belongings (i.e. suitcase, purse, laptop bags). From there they can move from their current home into new ones in homes, hotels, offices, hospitals, or any other building as well as modes of transportation. Sanitation and cleanliness of a property is not an issue as bed bugs are notorious hitch hikers and can show up almost anywhere.

Bed Bugs are not a Sanitation issue.

Even the cleanest of places can fall victim to bed bugs and once inside they spread rapidly. Bed bugs are great hitch hikers in someone’s personal belongings or luggage.

Is there a risk of disease from Bed Bugs?

Bed bugs do not pose any health risks from communicable diseases but their saliva does contain proteins that can leave itchy red welts on some people.

Indications of Bed Bugs?

If you suspect bed bugs, or want to be proactive, look for live or dead bugs or the skins they can leave behind when they are molting. After feeding bed bugs will regularly leave behind small spots of reddish-black fecal matter on your bedding, mattress or box springs. They will lay their eggs (1/32″ to 1/8″ in size) in dark crevices near feeding areas.  

Where have you been finding the bed bugs?

Bed bugs are not limited to any one particular kind of dwelling. They have been found in houses, multi-family dwellings, apartments, hotels, airplanes and hospitals. Sanitation or cleanliness is not an issue in where you can find bed bugs.

Why are bed bugs back?

Bed bugs never really left. They are common in many nations around the world. We are seeing a resurgence in North America for several reasons including a reduced use of pesticides, the use of second hand furniture and increased international travel as bed bugs are notorious hitch hikers.

How Do You Get Bed Bugs?

Bed bugs do not cling to people but they are notorious hitch hikers and can hide in our belongings (i.e. suitcase, purse, laptop bags). From there they can be introduced into a home, hotel, office, hospital, or any other building as well as modes of transportation. Sanitation is not a factor in whether or not you get bed bugs.

How Do Bed Bugs Spread?

Once established, bed bugs tend to stay put but can spread due to any of the following;

  • Being disturbed (i.e. disassembling furniture or incorrect pesticide application)
  • A food shortage (i.e. no host) may cause them to migrate to neighbouring rooms
  • A shortage of harbourage spaces may cause them to migrate to neighbouring rooms
  • Infested furniture moved down a hall, or passed on to others
  • Vacuum cleaners used for multiple rooms
  • Commercial laundry machines




  Fleas are a universal pest, affecting all warm-blooded vertebrates from bats and birds to the family cat and rabbit. They can be hard to control and even harder to kill, but knowing some interesting facts about their life-cycle can make eradicating a flea infestation a little bit easier!

  • There are at least 2000 known flea species around the world. By far the most common species affecting domestic animals, both cats and dogs, is the cat flea,Ctenocephalides felis.
  • Most fleas are very small, measuring only about 1/16″ to 1/8″ (1.5 to 3.3 mm), but living on mountain beavers in the United States is a monster flea. Hystrichopsylla schefferihas been recorded to reach lengths of 1/2″ (12 mm)!
  • Fleas have a darkly colored, hard body that is laterally flattened (squished from side to side). This body shape helps the flea to move between the hairs or feather on its host’s body.
  • Fleas are commonly the cause of superficial skin irritations and dermatitis. They cause a condition called flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) which can lead to red, inflamed, very itchy patches. They can also be vectors for more serious diseases and parasites, including the bacteria that cause typhus and bubonic plague, as well as tapeworms.

Fleas have 4 stages in their life cycle: egg, larva, pupa and adult.

  • The larger female flea must have a good blood meal before she is able to lay anywhere from 40 to 50 eggs a day! Although flea eggs are laid in the fur or hair of a host animal, they are designed to roll out easily and continue to develop in the environment.
  • Larvae hatch out in the environment, carpets and baseboards of family homes. Although they are completely blind, they are considered to be negatively phototaxic, meaning that they can sense light, and that they avoid it. They crawl down into cracks and crevices and search for food. Flea larvae feed primarily on dried blood in adult flea feces, as well as shed skin, fur and feathers.
  • Once the flea has reached the pupa stage it can remain dormant for several months until the conditions are right for the adult flea to emerge. Pressure, vibrations, presence of carbon dioxide, correct temperature and humidity are all indicators that a suitable host may be nearby and the adult flea can emerge.
  • Adult fleas can only survive a short time without a suitable host to feed on.
  • The multiple stages of a flea�s life cycle can make them very difficult to kill. Short-term treatment, or only treating the adult fleas on the host animal will not successfully eradicate the flea population. Adults only make up a very small part of the population, and the majority of the population is living as eggs and larvae. Any flea treatment needs to be comprehensive to tackle all life stages, and be ongoing for at least 6 months.




Characteristics Of German Cockroaches

German cockroaches are most commonly found indoors. If you’ve spotted a light brown or tan cockroach with two black horizontal stripes behind its head, it’s probably a German cockroach.It should also be noted that, although these cockroaches have wings, they rarely fly. Instead, they prefer to crawl around on floors, kitchen counters, and other warm, humid areas of your home.And be warned – these pests can trigger asthma symptoms and carry harmful bacteria. So, an infestation of German cockroaches  should not be taken lightly!If you don’t want to get rid of them yourself, consider choosing professional pest control services so your household can stay healthy and roach-free. 

Signs Of A German Cockroach Infestation:

Have you identified a German cockroach in your home? If so, you may be dealing with a cockroach infestation. Here are several other signs you should look out for:1. Cockroach activity during the dayCockroaches are nocturnal, so if you see them scuttling across your floor during the day, it’s likely that you’ve got a major cockroach infestation in your home.2. An oily, musty smellGerman cockroaches secrete a variety of odorous chemicals. So, if you notice an oily, musty odor, there’s a good chance that you’re dealing with a German cockroach infestation.3. Cockroach droppingsAs if having cockroaches wasn’t already gross enough – now you’ve got to deal with their droppings too!You can identify German cockroach droppings pretty easily because they look like ground pepper/coffee grounds and are commonly found in drawers or on countertops. Their fecal matter may even cause dark stains in the corners of the rooms in your home.4. Dead roachesIf you find a dead German cockroach, it’s pretty likely that his friends are nearby – alive and infesting your home. But a dead roach isn’t the only obvious sign – even a shed skin of a living German cockroach can indicate an infestation!5. A large number of smaller brown cockroaches in the kitchen and/or bathroomGerman cockroaches love hanging out in kitchens and bathrooms because these areas tend to provide the moisture and food they need to survive. Yes – cockroach “food” is in the bathroom too because they eat soap and toothpaste! 

How To Get Rid Of German Cockroaches

Have you noticed several infestation signs in your home? If so, you need to act fast because German cockroach populations grow quickly! Here’s what you can do to eliminate your pest problem:Keep your kitchen and bathroom clean and dry.Since German cockroaches love to hang out in kitchens and bathrooms, you can drive them out by taking away any reason for them to live there. That means you’ll need to eliminate moisture and food crumbs and store your soap out of their reach.Empty any pet food containers.Since cockroaches are active at night, there’s a good chance that they will feed on your pet’s food unless you remove it. Make sure your pet’s food containers are empty and clean every night before you go to sleep to prevent this.Use a dehumidifier in your home.Roaches thrive in humid environments, so using a dehumidifier is a good way to send them looking for a more humid place to live. If you use a dehumidifier in a large area like a basement, be sure you choose one that is specifically made to cover the area’s square footage.Clean your kitchen cabinets Remember – what’s trash to you is a feast for a German cockroach! Even the smallest crumbs can bring a dirty cockroach into your kitchen. So, be sure you clean your cabinetys to eliminate food sources for the pests.Don’t leave trash out Cockroaches love getting into trash, so avoid leaving any out for them to feed on! You should also make sure all of your trash cans are tightly sealed so that no roaches can sneak into them.Keep food sealedIf you’re the kind of person who rolls up the top of a bag of chips and sticks it in the cabinet, you might want to change your habits. Why? Because doing this gives a cockroach easy access to your food!Instead, put opened bags of food in tightly sealed plastic containers. That way, no pests can get in.Keep everything as dry as possibleBefore you go to sleep at night, take some time to dry all sinks, bathtubs, and showers. By doing this, you can make sure the roaches don’t have a moist environment to thrive in. 

How To Kill German Cockroaches

Okay – so we’ve talked about a few ways to get rid of German cockroaches by cutting out their food, water, and shelter options. Now, let’s talk about ways to kill them directly.  Call a professional! We use traps along side contact and residual treatments. We then back these up with long lasting gel baits placed in favorite hiding places of the roaches.



  Canada has over 100 species of ants, some of which are structure-damaging species and can take residence in or around your home. Ants can be difficult to remove once they establish a colony. Managing and controlling infestations is necessary if ants are frequently seen in your home or there are signs of a nearby nest. Before controlling an ant problem, it is important to know what species of ant you are dealing with. Having basic knowledge on the appearance, behaviour, nesting habits, and type of problems ants cause can help identify the ant species in order to use proper control methods.

Types of Ants in Canada

Common structure-infesting ant species found in Canada include the black carpenter ant, pavement ant, pharaoh ant, odorous house ant, Argentine ant, and thief ant. Most of the ant problems in Canadian homes are caused by carpenter ants, pavement ants, and pharaoh ants. Of all ant species, the black carpenter ant is the largest in size and the most common to cause structural damage. Pavement ants depending on location of nests are more of a nuisance, especially if nesting indoors. The pharaoh ant is another indoor nuisance pest, often attracted to foods high in protein and sugar.


Ants are social insects that live in colonies with populations often reaching hundreds of thousands. Most ant colonies build nests in soil. Some species, like the carpenter ant, tunnel into wood to create nesting chambers. A typical ant colony consists of three distinct social castes: the queen, drones, and workers. Most colonies have one queen and a vast number of workers, but the colonies of some species can have multiple queens. The queen’s function is to lay eggs and control activities of the nest via pheromone communication. The most likely to be seen outside the nest during non-swarming season are the workers. The workers forage for food to carry back to the colony. Foraging often brings ants into the home, because they are attracted to nearly any food humans may leave out. Sugary foods, meats, and grease are particularly attractive to ants.

 Appearance / Identification

Ants are generally easy to recognise; their colour is usually black, dark brown, red, or tan in colour. Depending on the species, their size can range from 1.5 mm to 13 mm in length. Like all insects, the body of an ant is divided in three distinct parts: head, thorax and abdomen. The thorax is joined to the abdomen by constricted petioles, also known as nodes. Depending on the species, some ants have a single node and others have two nodes. All ants have three pairs of legs used for walking, and they do not have wings, except for the reproductive swarmers, which have two pairs of functional wings used for mating and dispersal flights.


Most ant species found in Canada are omnivorous, feeding on a wide range of food sources. The dietary requirements of ants change throughout the year, depending on the season and needs of the colony. During mating season, from spring and into the summer, the colony requires ample protein to facilitate the development of the maturing larvae. Consequently, the ants forage for food high in protein, including preying on other arthropods and small invertebrates during this time of the year. As the summer continues, the colony begins to focus on preparing the nest for winter or relocating to a suitable overwintering site. Due to the energy needed to perform such tasks, ants switch from a protein-based diet to one primarily consisting of carbohydrates. Sugary substances, like nectar and honeydew, represent popular sources of carbohydrates for the most common species in Canada. The varied diet of ants regularly includes fungi, plants and organic matter, seeds, and a wide range of food items stored and consumed by humans, as well.

Life Cycle

The queens have the sole function of laying eggs in an ant colony. Most ant species have one queen per colony, but some species may have multiple queens within the same colony. The queen controls the sex of her offspring by selectively fertilizing eggs. Fertilized eggs may become wingless, sterile workers or winged, reproductively capable queens. Unfertilized eggs develop into winged males that perform the sole function of mating with new queens. Ant eggs usually take several months to develop and hatch into larvae. Worker ants feed and tend to the developing larvae until they reach the pupal stage. During the pupal stage, the developing ants remain sealed in protective cocoons until they emerge as adults. Fully developed adult workers begin duties of expanding nests, foraging for food, or taking care of larvae. When new queens and males reach adulthood they swarm, mate, lose their wings, and then begin forging new nests.Ants with Wings

Ant colonies feature a hierarchical social structure in which thousands of sterile female workers maintain the nest, forage for food, care for larvae, and protect one or more queens, whose sole responsibility is to ensure the continued survival of the colony by laying eggs. Most colonies form when the new reproductive queens leave their old nest, mate with a male, and deposit their eggs at the site of the new colony. New reproductive queens and males are characterized their wings, which worker ants lack. In a ritual known as a nuptial flight the winged ants, also known as alates, depart from existing colonies when prompted by the weather, fly to a new location, and mate. The alates mate in swarms either aerially or terrestrially. The newly mated queens then fly off to locate a nesting site, detach their wings, and lay eggs. Winged males, on the other hand, die after completing the nuptial flight as they exist solely to mate with the queen. The swarming presence of winged ants indoors, especially during winter, strongly indicates a nearby colony.

Problems Caused by Ants

Ants are unsightly and a nuisance when found inside a home. A few species such as pharaoh ants have been implicated in disease transmission, especially in hospital and long-term care facilities. Outdoor nesting habits can damage lawns and gardens, as well. When dwelling indoors, ants may cause damage to the structure by chewing wood, insulation, and electrical cables during nest building. Select species of ants are capable of inflicting painful stings. Some individuals may develop inflamed skin at sting sites and experience cramps and headaches as reactions to ant venom.

Do Ants Bite?

The mouth parts of ants have adapted for biting and chewing solid food. Some species have jaws strong enough to bite through human skin, but most cannot. Ant species such as black carpenter ants can bite if provoked. Some ant species including European Fire ants sting and inject formic acid into the wound, hence a burning sensation at the site of the bite. The majority of Canadian ant species rarely inflict bites on humans.

Infestation – Ants in the Home

Because pest species of ants frequently establish colonies in populated areas, the insects often invade the homes of Canadian residents. Attracted by the presence of food, foraging ants enter houses to scavenge for crumbs, oil or grease spills, sugar, and edible items regularly found in kitchen pantries and easily contaminate food items. Ants gain entry to buildings through cracks in the walls or foundation, as well as through gaps or other small openings that often appear where moulding or plumbing connect with the structure. Large numbers of ants can successfully invade homes by detecting and following an invisible trail produced by scouts sent previously by the colony to search for food.


Keeping the home clean and structurally well maintained generally is the best way to prevent an ant infestation. Keep leftover foods stored in tightly-sealed containers, wipe up crumbs and spills promptly, and sweep the floor regularly. Rinsing food containers prior to disposal also helps eliminate the edible residues that can attract ants. Repair all cracks in the walls and foundation and make sure doors, windows, and other points of entry remain properly sealed, as well. If the preventative measures fail and an ant infestation occurs, contact a pest control specialist. We offer multiple control options.


wood louse


Wood lice are small greyish, blackish or brownish Crustacea. Their bodies are flattened and consist of several plates with 19 pairs of appendages, including seven pairs of legs on their anterior part (pereion).


After mating, the female places her eggs in a liquid-filled incubator pouch, located under the pereion, in which the young develop. When they leave the pouch, the insects only have six of seven pairs of appendages on their pereion and will remain whitish in colour for several days before taking on their specific colouring.Wood lice are nocturnal insects and shy away from light. Some, like pillbugs, manage to roll themselves into a ball for protection, and this may help fight evaporation. A number of other wood lice behaviours are indicative of their great need for moisture. Therefore, they will be less active on windy nights when water losses are probably greater. They have uropods (tube-like appendages), located at the end of their bodies, that allow them to absorb or discharge water. Wood lice can also detect the slightest change in relative humidity and tend to associate in groups. Lastly, unlike insects, they are not covered with a wax cuticle and moult in two stages over an interval of a few days. Despite all these adjustments, they are less well adapted than other invertebrates that do not live in an aquatic environment.Wood lice exhibit positive thigmotaxis, i.e., they prefer to be in contact with a surface. Outdoors, they can, consequently, be found under a rock, bark, a bit of wood or recently-watered flower pots. This explains why they are usually seen in groups, although they may also be attracted by their own scent. Wood lice can be active throughout the year, indoors, but the adults are dormant outdoors during winter time.

Places where they can be found in the home

Since wood lice are in constant need of a very moist environment, they are often seen in basements. They do not do any damage indoors, although the owners of the house are usually not very happy about their presence. They normally feed on decomposing matter (organic waste, fruits and vegetables), microscopic fungi, algae and bacteria. Some wood lice are harmful to plants because they feed on the roots, stems or fruit. In Canada, only common rough wood lice (porcello scaber) behave that way. Wood lice sometimes burrow into the ground. Their numbers are usually higher in spring and summer due to humidity conditions at those times of year. 

Prevention methods

  • Make an effort to control the moisture level, both indoors and around the house, by improving your drainage.
  • Inspect your home to ensure that there is no accumulation of dead flies.
  • It is best not to allow plant or other debris to accumulate near the house and to inspect your gutters regularly.
  • Any wood introduced inside the house for the fireplace should be inspected; there may be wood lice living under the bark.
  • Openings or cracks allowing access to the basement should be plugged.

Control methods

Dehumidify the room by airing it out or installing a dehumidifier.

Popular beliefs

Wood lice are not insects (Hexapoda) but Crustacea. The latter usually have two pairs of antennae, but the first pair is atrophied in the wood lice that inhabit houses. Crustacea includes the order Decapoda (lobsters and shrimp) and Isopoda (wood lice). The term Isopoda refers to the fact that their legs are all alike (except for the pair of jawfeet). Wood lice are not covered with a true carapace like lobsters, however. 

We have an effective treatment that will eliminate these unwanted guests.





Most house centipedes are nocturnal, and prey primarily on flies, spiders, and sometimes plant tissue.


Centipedes are found throughout the United States and the world. They are typically found in areas of high moisture, such as in rotting logs, under stones, in trash or piles of leaves/grass. When they invade homes, centipedes are most commonly found in damp basements, crawlspaces, bathrooms, or potted plants.


Centipedes are generally considered nuisance pests, as they do not pose significant health or property threats. However, all house centipedes have poison jaws with which they inject venom into their prey. If handled roughly, some larger species can inflict a painful bite that can break human skin and causes pain and swelling, similar to a bee sting.

Centipede Prevention

The most effective way to get rid of or prevent house centipede infestations is to reduce areas of moisture in and around your home. Remove leaf piles and grass clippings. Store firewood off of the ground. Provide adequate ventilation in crawl spaces, basements, etc. When this fails or not an option,we have a quick and lasting solution for you!



  A full grown silverfish or firebrat is about ¼-½ inch long. Both insects lack wings and have carrot-shaped bodies, thick at the front and tapering towards the posterior. The young look identical to the adults, but are smaller. Silverfish and firebrats have two long antennae on their heads and three tail-like appendages on the tips of their abdomens. The five appendages are approximately as long as the body. Silverfish have uniformly colored silver bodies while firebrats have mottled gray-brown colored bodies. Both insects can move very fast when disturbed and homeowners often mistake them for cockroaches.


Silverfish and firebrats can be accidentally brought into buildings with boxes of materials that have been stored in infested areas. They can also move indoors from the outside. Once inside structures, they move quickly through buildings in search for food. When they find a source, they will generally stay close to it.Silverfish and firebrats are general feeders, consuming a large variety of materials. They especially eat foods and products that are high in protein, sugar, or starch. This includes vegetable foods, such as flour and cereal; fabrics, including cotton, linen, silk, and rayon; sizing in paper; starch in clothing; and paste or glue. They also eat wallpaper, book bindings, and paper when trying to feed on the glue or paste underneath them. Their damage is usually recognized from their irregular feeding marks and the presence of feces. Silverfish and firebrats can go for months without feeding.Both insects are active at night and hide during the day. They lay eggs in cracks, crevices, and other narrow, confined spaces. Silverfish prefer cool, moist, dark places with temperatures between 70o - 80° F and a relative humidity between 75% - 95%. They are often associated with basements, closets, bookcases, and storage areas. Firebrats also prefer damp areas but in places with temperatures over 90° F. They are found in boiler and furnace rooms, steam tunnels, insulation around hot water or heating pipes, bakeries, and similar places. Both silverfish and firebrats can also be associated with leaking or unventilated roofs and can be found on upper floors in buildings (if sufficient humidity exits (i.e. bathrooms).Silverfish and firebrats run with characteristic, quick movements, stopping at short intervals and then moving on rapidly. These insects can not climb on smooth vertical surfaces and may be found trapped in sinks, bathtubs, and similar places. Despite the circumstantial evidence, they do not come up out of drains.


Jeffrey HahnSilverfishDepartment of Entomology, University of MinnesotaFirebratSilverfish and firebrats are primarily nuisance insects, usually causing little damage. Although very uncommon, the potential exists for large, uncontrolled infestations of silverfish and firebrats to damage paper, book bindings, wallpaper, cereals, starched fabrics, leather, fur, silk and rayon. Silverfish and firebrats are not associated with the spread of any disease.


When silverfish or firebrats are sighted or their damage is suspected, inspect basements, closets, storage areas, and other potential silverfish and firebrat sites to determine the source of the problem. Set out sticky traps to help determine where silverfish and firebrat numbers are the highest. Silverfish and firebrats can wander through buildings as they search for food and can be found away from food sources. Sometimes this source may be in inaccessible sites. Concentrate management efforts at the source of the infestations.

Nonchemical management

Tolerate small numbers of silverfish or firebrats when possible. You can capture a limited number of these insects by setting out sticky traps in areas where they have been sighted.Silverfish and firebrats are associated with damp conditions. You can reduce their numbers by correcting moisture problems, e.g. drying out damp areas with a fan or dehumidifier, repairing leaky pipes, ventilating closed rooms, repairing leaking roofs, or sealing concrete walls and floors. If the problem occurs in a bathroom, make sure the ventilation fan is used during baths and showers. If you can not move materials, provide air spaces between boxes and other objects to promote air circulation. Keep in mind that as air cools the humidity in that air increases, so using a dehumidifier or gently heating the surrounding air can have a big impact on the infestation!You can also reduce silverfish and firebrats by removing sources of food, especially in damp areas. You can reduce potential hiding places by removing old papers, books, boxes and other clutter. Seal cracks and crevices, including those found in baseboards, cupboards, and walls to limit harborages.If the problem is associated with the roof, make sure that adequate ventilation is provided to avoid moisture accumulation. One particular problem that has been observed in the past was the installation of cedar shakes over a plywood / tarpaper base. Ventilation devices, such as soffit / ridge vents or roof vents must be installed to avoid moisture accumulation. Trees that overhang a roof may also add to the moisture build up and should be pruned back to promote air circulation.

Insecticidal management

Insecticides are normally not necessary for silverfish and firebrat management. However, if large numbers are discovered, it may be desirable to supplement nonchemical methods with an insecticide treatment to quickly reduce the infestation.Some of the chemical options include:
You can apply boric acid, a type of inorganic dust. Common trade names include Roach Powder® and Roach Prufe®. Diatomaceous earth, also known as silicon dioxide, is also available. A representative trade name is Concern®. Follow the label and place the dust in cracks and crevices where silverfish and firebrats have been sighted. Do not apply dust where children and pets can reach it.You can also make residual spot treatments along baseboards, cracks and crevices, and other areas where silverfish or firebrats are found. Or professionally applied Insecticides, such as permethrin, deltamethrin, cyfluthrin, and cypermethrin are effective insecticides against these insects. 



 Carpet beetles belong to the family Dermestidae, which derives from the Greek word for skin. As such, the main source of food for the family of beetles consists of dried animal and plant matter with high protein content, like carcasses. Carpet beetles can thrive in a variety of environments, but areas with low humidity serve the needs of developing eggs best. Consequently, most types of carpet beetles are common across Canada, the Northern United States, and Europe. The most invasive and abundant Canadian carpet beetles include the black carpet beetle (Attagenus unicolor), the Furniture carpet beetle (Anthrenus flavipes), and the varied carpet beetle (Anthrenus verbasci).

Appearance / Identification

What Does a Carpet Beetle Look Like? Most adult carpet beetles range from 2 mm to 5 mm in length, with very short clubbed antennae and chewing mouthparts. Carpet beetles in general are oval in shape and appear dark brown to black in colour. The furniture and varied carpet beetles also bear unique, coloured scales specific to the type. White and yellow scales cover the thorax and body in distinct patterns on furniture carpet beetles. Additionally, orange and red scales run down the midline of the beetles. Varied carpet beetles feature irregular patterns of white, brown, and dark-yellow scales, which fade to solid black or brown as the insect ages.The shape and size of carpet beetle larvae varies depending on species. However, most are elongated with varying degrees of tuft of hairs on the body. Colour ranges from dark brown to light brown. Black carpet beetle larvae are covered with short, stiff hairs and have a bristle-like tail, and the varied larvae are covered with dense tufts, which extend upright as a natural defense.


Generally, carpet beetle larvae prefer dark and secluded places. The insect often burrows in bird nests and other organic materials, such as trees and animal carcasses, when outside. Air ducts, collected lint, dry dog food, wool, and stored grains or spices often serve as both food sources and shelters while larvae grow indoors. Black and common carpet beetles do not fare as well in higher temperatures and are more prominent in Europe, the Northern United States, and Canada. While varied carpet beetles thrive further south, any place with warm buildings suits the insect. Adult carpet beetles prefer sunlight and populate gardens or other plant-heavy locations.

Life Cycle

Carpet beetles undergo complete metamorphosis with four distinct stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. Females lay eggs directly on or near larval food sources, such as carpets, furs, wool, spider webs, animal carcasses, leather, and other protein-containing materials. Though timespans vary based on the type of carpet beetle and the temperature, the eggs hatch within an average of two weeks. The duration of the larval stage also depends on the type of carpet beetle species and temperature. Common carpet beetle larvae take between two and three months to reach pupation, varied carpet beetle larvae may need up to two years, and black carpet beetle larvae develop in the larval stage for six months to just under a year. Pupation for the beetles lasts around one to two weeks, and then adults live for an average of two months.

Signs of Infestation

Though carpet beetles cause the most damage during the larval stage, the first and most apparent sign of infestation is adult beetles on windowsills. Similar to moths, larvae can be detected by irregular holes found in carpets, fabric, and the like. However, carpet beetles tend to eat a single, large area of a fabric whereas moths create tiny holes all over garments. Additionally, carpet beetle larvae leave cast skins while molting, which may cause allergic reactions and dermatitis in some highly sensitive individuals.

Prevention Tips

Adult carpet beetles are often carried into houses via plants and flowers, so regularly checking gardens and flora around homes and buildings may eliminate the risk of infestation. Cleaning out collections of lint, hair, dead insects, and other debris by vacuuming helps remove the food sources of larvae and may also kill any beetles already nesting in carpets. Checking window screens, doors, and vents for durability and removing spider webs, dead animals in vents and attics, and various nests inside and around buildings are effective deterrents, as well. Additionally, homeowners benefit from frequent cleanings of rugs, draperies, upholstered furniture, closets, and stored fabrics. If serious carpet beetle infestation occurs, give us a call! we are a qualified pest professional who can stop them in their tracks!. 



 Pantry beetles refer to a large group of beetles that infest stored products in both residential and commercial settings.  These infestations result from either infested grains or infested processed products that are introduced into the home, storage facility or processing plant.  Infestations of pantry beetles are not seasonal, instead they can occur anytime throughout the year.Different species of panty beetles have different habits, habitats, behaviors and diet.  Therefore, an accurate identification of the infesting pantry beetle by a pest management professional is crucial to successfully controlling an infestation.  Also, a pest management professional’s knowledge, experience and the effective use of equipment and products will control the population of damaging insects.  Quick control is extremely important since pantry beetles not only damage and destroy the products they feed on, but also contaminate products by depositing feces and castoff body parts in or on the product.  If you discover a pantry beetle, don’t procrastinate – the problem is likely to get worse before it gets better.PANTRY BEETLE FEEDING CATEGORIESStored product infesting beetles are broadly categorized based on their feeding behavior. The four categories of pantry beetles are internal feeders, external feeders, secondary feeders and scavengers.INTERNAL FEEDERSInternal feeders are beetles that complete their larval (grub) stage inside the seed, kernel or beans they damage.  Some of the commonly encountered internal feeders are rice weevils, granary weevils and lesser grain borers.  The weevils are relatively easy to identify since they have a long snout that sticks out from their head and has its functional mouthparts at the tip of the snout.  Many experts consider the rice and granary weevils to be the world’s most important stored grain pests.  The stored products favored by the rice and granary weevils include corn, barley, rice, wheat, sunflower seeds and pastas that are old and damaged.EXTERNAL FEEDERSExternal feeders complete their life cycle outside the grain. However, external feeders will feed on and damage both whole grains and processed products from whole grains.  Some commonly encountered external feeders are cigarette beetles, drugstore beetles, warehouse and cabinet beetles.  The types of stored products damaged by external feeders include pet foods, grains, cereals, seeds, spices, pasta, nuts, dried fruits and tobacco.  The warehouse and cabinet beetles will feed on animal hair, taxidermy skins, dried fruits, milk and dead insects.  These beetles will infest the attic space of a home where they may be feeding on a dead rodent or a bird’s nest.SECONDARY FEEDERSThis category of pantry beetles infests old, wet and moldy stored products that may be damaged by other groups of stored product insects.  The secondary feeders often do not directly feed on the product itself, but feed on the mold and fungus growing on the products.  One of many possible causes of a secondary feeder infestation is old rodent baits set out, but not gathered up, after the rodent problem was solved.  Some commonly encountered secondary feeders include mealworms, spider beetles and foreign grain beetles.  The mealworm beetle infests old products, but is also a valuable insect since its larval stage is raised and sold as fish bait and food for pets like lizards.SCAVENGERSThis group of pantry beetles is not able to infest whole grains or kernels unless the product was damaged by an external or internal feeding beetle or in the harvesting or storage process.  The most likely situations causing a scavenger beetle infestation are broken pieces of whole grains, grain dust or dry, processed products made from a particular type of grain or grain product.  The more common and damaging pantry beetles in this group are the red flour beetle, the confused flour beetle and the sawtoothed grain beetle.  Processed products that can be infested include flour, pet foods, corn meal, bran, beans, rice, dried fruits, pasta, processed and smoked meat and cheese products (infested by the red legged ham beetle).PREVENTION OF PANTRY BEETLE DAMAGE

  • When a stored pest infestation is discovered, contact your pest management professional for assistance.  Your pest management professional can give you an accurate identification of the pest and knows what to do to eliminate the infestation.  His knowledge of the pest’s habitat helps him to locate the infestation site in a part of the house that may be outside the pantry or kitchen.
  • Examine food packages to ensure you are not purchasing damaged foods or damaged food packages.  Discard any packages of products that are infested or return the infested food to the store manager where it was bought.  When purchasing bulk products, look for any adult or larval insect stages in the bin or within the product.
  • Use products before they get old.  Employ the FIFO concept – first in, first out.  Buy foods in small-sized packages so the food is used before it gets old.  Pay attention to dates on the stored product packages and use the older products before the newer ones.
  • Keep the pantry and other storage areas clean and well organized since spilled foods attract pests and good organization helps a homeowner conduct a good inspection.  Clean the cracks and crevices in your pantry. Don’t leave bits of food, sugar, flour or grains inside the pantry or on the storage shelves.  A vacuum is a very helpful cleaning tool, but make sure you discard the vacuum bag after use.  If insects are left in the bag, they could create an infestation inside the bag.
  • If practical, store foods in containers that are insect-proof to prevent an infestation.  Glass or plastic containers with tight-fitting lids are insect-proof, while cardboard, wood or paper containers are not.
  • Homeowners should not use insecticides. The risk of contaminating foods with insecticides must be avoided. If insecticide applications are needed, your pest management professional will apply them in a manner that doesn’t risk contamination.



  Fruit flies are small, red-eyed, 1/4 inch long flies commonly associated with overripe and fermenting fruits and vegetables. However, fruit need not be present to have fruit flies, as they can originate from other sources. They are the number 1 pest fly in bars and restaurants.Fruit flies can reproduce anywhere there is fermenting organic matter that stays consistently wet or moist. Like other flies, the fruit flies develop from larvae, and fruit fly larvae must have moist, fermenting organic matter in order to survive. The most likely of such sites in the home is a slow-moving or seldom-used sink, bathtub, shower, or floor drain in which a layer of slime (organic film) has built up above the water line. In restaurants and bars, other moist accumulations of fermenting organic matter are possible and should be considered. These include wet areas under dripping pipes and refrigeration equipment, garbage containers, and discarded bottles and cans. Regardless of where the flies originate, they will be seen at windows and at sinks, as they are attracted to light and to moisture.
Fruit Fly Life CycleFemale fruit flies lay their eggs on the surface of rotting fruit. These eggs hatch into larvae, which molt twice before becoming full grown. Fruit fly larvae feed on the yeast organisms and fungi growing in the fruit and vegetable materials, and through their feeding efforts, they soon turn their food into a semi-liquid mess. When the full grown larvae are ready to pupate, they leave the rotten fruit for drier areas, usually to the sides of the garbage can. The time required to complete one life cycle is mainly dependent on the temperature of the growth medium and surrounding air; at 64 degrees Fahrenheit, it takes 18-20 days for growth from the egg stage to adult, while at 77 degrees Fahrenheit, only 8-10 days are required to complete the stages of development.Getting Rid of Fruit FliesFruit Flies are best controlled by locating and eliminating the source of the infestation. Sprays, fog and traps will capture and kill the adult flies, but control of the larvae and elimination of the breeding area will be the only way to stop them. Persistent presence of adult Fruit Flies indicates the larvae are developing nearby. This is always in the area of decaying or rotting organic matter, especially fruits and vegetables – hence the name fruit fly.Fruit Fly breeding areas are occasionally difficult to locate. Trash cans, areas under and around equipment, tables, etc in kitchens, bars and food areas are the #1 area where Fruit Flies hide and lay eggs. Plants, floor drains, etc in other areas of homes or buildings are also prime areas but of less importance. The important thing to remember is that there IS a source of Fruit Fly infestation somewhere. The Fruit Flies are breeding somewhere close by, and that is where the effort needs to be concentrated.Best Products For Fruit Fly Control Insecticide fogs such as Pyrethrum Aerosol applied by our skilled crew can be sprayed into the air to kill adult winged Fruit Flies. A simple 3 second spray into the air with the products will kill most Fruit Flies within the area. These products can also be sprayed under and behind equipment and in hidden areas, cracks, and crevices. A foam injection Aerosol will provide a much needed Growth Regulator application to cracks, crevices and drains that will kill Fruit Fly eggs and stop the immature larvae from becoming adults. 




Common Mouse Species

There are many different types of mice present in Canada.The top 2 species considered to be a major pest in this country are the House Mouse and Field Mouse.

Deer Mouse

(Peromyscus maniculatus)Deer Mice are pests that prefer to live in wooded areas. They will, however, venture into homes, sheds and outbuildings located in or around wooded areas. They can be destructive to wood structures as well as carrying with them a number of potential health concerns.


  • Size: adult head and body 2 ¾-4” in length; Tail 2-5".
  • Weight: About ⅜ - 1 ¼ oz.
  • Pale grayish, buff coloring to reddish brown on top and side. White fur on the belly.
  • The tail is usually bi-colored and is very long, longer than half the length of the body and covered with short hair.


  • Deer mice usually live between 2-14 months, but some in captivity have been known to live 5-8 years.
  • The female gestation period is usually 21-24 days and females have 3-5 young with each litter. They also have 2-4 litters per year.
  • The young will reach sexual maturity in 7-8 weeks.


  • Deer mice are nocturnal, coming out at night to find food.
  • They are excellent climbers and will be found in even upper levels of structures like in attics and upper floors.
  • During colder months deer mice will seek shelter inside and will enter buildings during that time.
  • Deer mice are one of the leading carriers of the hantavirus, which can be very dangerous to humans.

House Mouse

(Mus musculus)House mice are active all year round, which means you could find them invading your home or business at any time.


  • Size: 70 – 95mm in length, with a tail around the same length.
  • Weight: 12 – 30g.
  • Their relatively small feet & head and large eyes & ears distinguish them from a young brown rat (Rattus norvegicus).


  • 4 – 16 young per litter; 7 – 8 litters a year.
  • Gestation period of about 3 weeks.
  • 8 – 12 weeks from birth to sexual maturity.


  • Usually ground living and burrowing, but often climbs.
  • Preferred food is cereals.
  • Will eat around 3g of food a day and can survive without any additional water. They will drink up to 3ml a day if their diet is particularly dry.

Field Mouse

(Apodemus sylvaticus)Field mice rarely venture into inhabited buildings but in the winter months, they will enter sheds and other backyard structures where fruit and vegetables are stored.Field mice are a big threat to businesses operating in farming and agricultural areas.


  • Size: adult head and body 80 – 100mm in length; Tail 70 – 90mm.
  • Weight: Male can weigh 25g, and the female 20g.
  • Sandy / orange brown fur on the head and back.
  • Yellowish fur on the flanks and white on the belly.
  • There is usually a small streak of yellow on the chest.


  • Their life span averages two to three months, but they can survive as much as 20 months in the wild, or two or more years in captivity.
  • Breeding seasons are March/April to October/November and gestation lasts approximately 25 days. They grow their first fur after six days; their eyes open after 16; and they are weaned at around 18 days old.
  • Survival of the young and adults is poor during the first half of the breeding season as adult males can be aggressive towards one another and to the young, who are then driven from the nest.


  • They eat a high proportion of the seed crop of trees such as oak, beech, ash, lime, hawthorn and sycamore.
  • Small snails and insects are particularly important sources of food in late spring and early summer when seeds are less available.
  • They also eat apples and will attack newly planted legume seeds.

White-Footed Mouse

(Peromyscus leucopus)The White-footed Mouse can be found in parts of southern Canada.


  • The White-footed Mouse is a relatively small rodent with a combined head and body measurement of just 3.5 to 4 inches.
  • Not surprisingly, the feet are white and so is the belly. Upper parts of their body are grayish to reddish-brown and the tail is the same two colors.


  • Homes located near forests and brush lands, or bordering agricultural lands, may be at risk from this rodent. The removal of a mouse population is a very involved multi pronged procedure. It takes a experienced exterminator to tackle this task. We are up for the challenge!








  • RAT FACT ONE: Rats carry at least 60 communicable diseases, including Hantavirus, leptospirosis, typhus and meningitis. Know to bite people when they’re sleeping, rats transfer diseases through saliva, including rat-bite fever which causes symptoms like fever, vomiting and joint pain and can be fatal if left untreated.
  • RAT FACT TWO: Rats can tread water for three days and survive being flushed down a toilet. Worse, they can return to the building they were ‘flushed’ from via the same route.
  • RAT FACT THREE: Rats can chew through electrical wires, cinderblocks and even lead pipes with their razor sharp teeth
  • RAT FACT FOUR: A rat’s teeth grow five inches a year, only maintained by continuous grinding and gnawing to keep from outgrowing the rat’s mouth
  • RAT FACT FIVE: A female rat can mate with as many as 500 partners during a six-hour period of “heat,” or sexual receptivity, which occurs about 15 times per year. That adds up to as many as 2,000 offspring in one year – unfortunate when your unwanted roommates are multiplying at a rapid fire pace
  • RAT FACT SIX: Rats eat their own feces for nutritional value
  • RAT FACT SEVEN: And one last particularly gross detail: Rats have belly buttons. Ew! 
  • Let the trained experts at Living Skies Organic Pest Control take care of these critters!